"Edge Singularity Theory" by Eli Afram.

Whether space is finite or not is a question that’s been long pondered. On minds great and small, astronomers and cosmologists, philosophers and theologians. This paper tries to address some of the issues in current space model, and proposes a new model for our universe which is consistent with our current proven understandings.

Although some in depth analysis of WMAP data suggested there is no physical edge of the universe, I propose that there is secondary evidence which is in favour of a finite universe (although non physical). The hypothesis is based on current models of the big bang, the role of red-shift and space—time expansion, and the role of black holes.

INTRODUCTION

In questioning the finite possibility of space, we must first understand the characteristics and traits of such an ‘edge’, and what effects such an ‘edge’ would have on the adjacent universe. Would it mirror the space before it? Or would it be a blackness that is void of cosmic life?

In acquiring a logical answer, we must understand what is beyond this edge – the singularity. Not unlike the singularity which would have been present before the creation of the universe, as according to the general theory of relativity. In this sense the edge would literally be the separation of the singularity before the big bang, and the post creation of the universe; an imaginary wall that separates space from nothingness.

The edge singularity would most probably be of a curvature type as opposed to conical, and should therefore harbour the same attributes of a black hole system. By analysing the effects of black holes on adjacent space, we can also accurately assess the effects of edge singularity on our universe.

BODY

In identifying the outcome, we require a twostep analysis. The first to interrogate all attributes of known singularities (black holes), and secondly to match-up these known effects to current models of our universe.

Characteristics and Effects of Black Holes:

1. Black Holes harbour a singularity.

2. Extreme gravitational pull on all surrounding matter, and even light.

3. Objects accelerate as they get closer.

4. Defined by an event horizon (a point of no return).

5. On approach, time would slow down as gravitational red-shift occurs.

6. Infinite curvature represents loss of information and coordinates.

The hypothesised edge singularity would have to have the same effects and attributes as the above, with one difference. Rather than being a singularity surrounded by space-time, it would be space-time surrounded by the singularity. Or, an inverted black hole.

From here on, the similarities with cosmological models cannot be disputed. In referencing the six points above;

1. The edge of the universe would indeed be a singularity.

2. Space-time is constantly being stretched, galaxies are spreading.

3. The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.

4. The edge singularity would also have an event horizon.

5. Red-shift is all occurring around the universe.

6. Matter that spills over the edge would be lost forever.

- a. In understanding how something would be lost forever, it is important in understanding that matter can only exist where space exists for it. Having an absence of space (which is a definition of the singularity) is equivalent to having ‘no space’. Hence all coordinates and physical attributes would be stripped off any matter that is lost in the singularity.

- b. Matter lost on one edge of the universe would be equivalent to matter lost on the opposite extreme edge. Even though prior having very opposite coordinates, once consumed in the infinite curvature, there exists nothing.

The term deemed “Dark Energy” attributed to the ‘invisible’, antigravity that is responsible for the continual spreading of galaxies has thus far been unexplainable. However, with the edge singularity theory, ‘dark energy’ is not only explained but no longer a required term in astrophysics.

In this model, the universe continues to expand at an accelerating rate, supporting current theories. However, as galaxies move further away from one another, they will most inevitably at some stage meet the event horizon.

CONCLUSION

As a result of a simple analysis we can conclude that there is a solid argument for expansion of the universe and associated red-shift. Dark Energy is a term no longer required as this anti-gravity agent, previously a phantom of cosmology, now explained by the edge singularity. Although for us, space is a vacuum, for space, it is the singularity which is the vacuum constantly pulling at it. The universe is likely finite, and its’ effects are observable and comparable.